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Can a circumcised woman get pregnant

By Gaia Vince. Children undergoing female genital mutilation risk infertility years later due to recurrent infections, a study in Sudan has found. The researchers hope their evidence will add valuable weight to those campaigning for a ban on the practice which affects millions of women and girls in Africa. More than million women and girls in Africa have undergone circumcision, the World Health Organization estimates — about two million per year — but until now, few scientific studies have examined the health effects of the procedure, which is often advocated locally on with the claim that it improves fertility. Girls as young as 6 years old often suffer persistent recurring infections as a result of the traumatic procedure.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Reversing Female Circumcision: The Cut That Heals

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Female Genital Mutilation: A Visual Reference and Learning Tool for Health Care Professionals

Female genital mutilation or cutting

FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. The practice involves removing and injuring healthy and normal female genital tissue, interfering with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies.

All forms of FGM are associated with increased health risk in the short- and long-term. FGM is a harmful practice and is unacceptable from a human rights as well as a public health perspective, regardless of who performs it. Severe pain. Cutting the nerve ends and sensitive genital tissue causes extreme pain. The healing period is also painful. Excessive bleeding haemorrhage. Can result if the clitoral artery or other blood vessel is cut.

May spread after the use of contaminated instruments e. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV. The direct association between FGM and HIV remains unconfirmed, although the cutting of genital tissues with the same surgical instrument without sterilization could increase the risk for transmission of HIV between girls who undergo female genital mutilation together.

Urination problems. These may include urinary retention and pain passing urine. This may be due to tissue swelling, pain or injury to the urethra. Death can result from infections, including tetanus, as well as haemorrhage that can lead to shock. Mental health problems. Due to tissue damage and scarring that may result in trapped or unprotected nerve endings.

Painful urination. Due to obstruction of the urethra and recurrent urinary tract infections. Menstrual problems. Obstruction of the vaginal opening may lead to painful menstruation dysmenorrhea , irregular menses and difficulty in passing menstrual blood, particularly among women with Type III FGM.

Excessive scar tissue keloids. Excessive scar tissue can form at the site of the cutting. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus. Given that the transmission of HIV is facilitated through trauma of the vaginal epithelium which allows the direct introduction of the virus, it is reasonable to presume that the risk of HIV transmission may be increased due to increased risk of bleeding during intercourse, as a result of FGM.

Sexual health problems. Removal of, or damage to, highly sensitive genital tissue, especially the clitoris, may affect sexual sensitivity and lead to sexual problems, such as decreased sexual desire and pleasure, pain during sex, difficulty during penetration, decreased lubrication during intercourse, and reduced frequency or absence of orgasm anorgasmia.

Scar formation, pain and traumatic memories associated with the procedure can also lead to such problems. Childbirth complications obstetric complications. The risks increase with the severity of FGM. Obstetric fistula. A direct association between FGM and obstetric fistula has not been established. However, given the causal relationship between prolonged and obstructed labour and fistula, and the fact that FGM is also associated with prolonged and obstructed labour, it is reasonable to presume that both conditions could be linked in women living with FGM.

Perinatal risks. Obstetric complications can result in a higher incidence of infant resuscitation at delivery and intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal death. Studies have shown that girls and women who have undergone FGM are more likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , anxiety disorders, depression and somatic physical complaints e.

Health risks of female genital mutilation FGM. Short-term health risks of FGM Severe pain. Genital tissue swelling. Due to inflammatory response or local infection. Impaired wound healing. Can lead to pain, infections and abnormal scarring. Long-term health risks of FGM occurring at any time during life Pain. Infections : Chronic genital infections. With consequent chronic pain, and vaginal discharge and itching. Cysts, abscesses and genital ulcers may also appear. Chronic reproductive tract infections.

May cause chronic back and pelvic pain. Urinary tract infections. If not treated, such infections can ascend to the kidneys, potentially resulting in renal failure, septicaemia and death. An increased risk of repeated urinary tract infections is well documented in both girls and adult women who have undergone FGM.

Vaginal problems. Discharge, itching, bacterial vaginosis and other infections. Sexual and reproductive health. Related health topics. Fact sheet.

Female genital mutilation can cause infertility

You can ask for an interpreter in your language. Some appointments and health services will stop or change to reduce the risk of transmission. For more information, go to cancellations and appointments. Female circumcision, also known as female genital cutting or female genital mutilation, is the practice of partially cutting or totally removing the external female genitalia as part of a cultural practice. Female circumcision is the practice of partially cutting or totally removing the external female genitalia.

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Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision , [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. In half of the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans ; removal of the inner labia ; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, known as infibulation , a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.

Care for pregnant women who have experienced genital cutting

What is female genital mutilation FGM? How many women and girls are affected? How does FGM affect the health of women and girls? What are the consequences for childbirth? What are the psychological effects of FGM? What are the different types of FGM? Which types are most common?

Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM)

All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. The javascript used in this widget is not supported by your browser. Please enable JavaScript for full functionality. Researchers estimate more than , girls and women in the U.

FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. The practice involves removing and injuring healthy and normal female genital tissue, interfering with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies.

Jump to navigation. It is often performed by traditional practitioners such as traditional birth attendants without any form of anaesthesia or analgesia using non-sterile instruments. There are no known medical benefits to FGC, and it can be dangerous for the health and psychological well-being of these women and girls, resulting in both short- and long-term problems. Long-term complications include chronic pelvic infection, formation of cysts, vaginal obstruction and infertility.

Top 5 things you didn’t know about female genital mutilation

The first comprehensive study of the effects of female genital mutilation on women and babies during childbirth has been published by leading medical journal, The Lancet. The study, which provides the first reliable evidence that female genital mutilation can adversely affect birth outcomes, was undertaken by African and international researchers, including Associate Professor Emily Banks from the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health at Australian National University. The study found that women who have had Female Genital Mutilation FGM are significantly more likely to experience difficulties during childbirth and that their babies are more likely to die as a result of the practice.

Daughters of Eve. Living with FGM. FGM is against the law in the UK and is recognised as a form of child abuse. Undergoing the practice can affect girls and women in many ways and there are often long term effects on your physical and emotional health. This page provides details about potential health problems and gives advice about how to live as halthily as possible with FGM. You may not really remember what happened to you but that experience can be held within your mind at a deeper level.

Female genital mutilation

But for some girls, the message is that, to be accepted by the wider community, their bodies must be cut, altered and even reshaped through a practice known as female genital mutilation FGM. Often viewed as a rite of passage, FGM can result in serious health complications, including infections, chronic pain and infertility. It can even be deadly. Despite being internationally recognized as a human rights violation, some million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM, and if current rates persist, an estimated 68 million more will be cut between and Girls at a school in Kenya, where many students are receiving support after running away from home to avoid FGM and child marriage. Female genital mutilation refers to any procedure involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genitals for non-medical reasons. There are four types of FGM :.

Jump to Which international and regional instruments can be - torture have both recognized that FGM can amount to H. Rushwan FGC management during pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum period. 14, Female circumcision.

Back to Health A to Z. Female genital mutilation FGM is a procedure where the female genitals are deliberately cut, injured or changed, but there's no medical reason for this to be done. It's also known as female circumcision or cutting, and by other terms, such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, megrez and khitan, among others. All women and girls have the right to control what happens to their bodies and the right to say no to FGM. Help is available if you have had FGM or you're worried that you or someone you know is at risk.

Рука Сьюзан задрожала, и пейджер упал на пол возле тела Хейла. Сьюзан прошла мимо него с поразившим его выражением человека, потрясенного предательством. Коммандер не сказал ни слова и, медленно наклонившись, поднял пейджер. Новых сообщений не .

Да будет.  - Хейл вроде бы затрубил отбой.  - Теперь это не имеет значения. У вас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Внезапно Сьюзан вспомнила, что он должен быть в лаборатории систем безопасности. Она кружила по пустому кабинету, все еще не преодолев ужас, который вызвало у нее общение с Хейлом.

Я понимал, что если он продаст свой алгоритм японской компании, производящей программное обеспечение, мы погибли, поэтому мне нужно было придумать, как его остановить. Я подумал о том, чтобы его ликвидировать, но со всей этой шумихой вокруг кода и его заявлений о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ мы тут же стали бы первыми подозреваемыми. И вот тогда меня осенило.  - Он повернулся к Сьюзан.

 - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать.

- Может, пройдем, чтобы я смог вам это доказать. - Не стану вас затруднять, - ухмыльнулась она, - благодарю за предложение. Но все же кто. Беккер держался своей легенды: - Я из севильской полиции. Росио угрожающе приблизилась.

Посмотри. Бринкерхофф растерянно постоял минутку, затем подбежал к окну и встал рядом с Мидж. Та показала ему последние строчки текста. Бринкерхофф читал, не веря своим глазам.

Comments: 2
  1. Akilkree

    Do not despond! More cheerfully!

  2. Kagore

    I confirm. So happens. We can communicate on this theme. Here or in PM.

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