Does a jewish man need a get
It is clear from this passage that a divorce is accomplished through specific acts of the husband. Neither wife nor beit din Jewish court is mentioned as a possible initiator of the divorce process. The Mishnah [an early rabbinic legal code] does provide, however, that a wife was permitted, under certain circumstances, to request that a Jewish court compel the husband to perform the acts required for a divorce. But the rule that the Jewish courts can, under certain circumstances, compel the husband to participate in the divorce procedure seems to contradict the rule that a husband must be acting of his own free will when divorcing his wife. In order to answer this question, the rabbis created a legal fiction: A man who agrees to divorce his wife because of the pressure exerted on him to obey an order of a Jewish court is considered to be acting of his own free will. This principle enabled a duly constituted beit din to employ any means it saw fit, including corporal punishment, to ensure the husband formally uttered the necessary phrases and did the acts required of him to constitute participation in the get Jewish divorce procedure.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Raw: Ultra-Orthodox Jew Stabs 6 at Gay Parade
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Jewish views on marriage
It was August 14, , and he was sitting in his home in Lakewood, New Jersey, with a young Orthodox Jewish woman and her brother. She had sought out Epstein because she desperately wanted to divorce her husband, who was refusing to give her a get , the document that formally dissolves a marriage under Jewish law.
In Orthodox Judaism, only husbands can give gets , and while most do, those who refuse wield enormous power over their wives.
Even with a civil divorce decree in hand, a woman is not divorced in the Orthodox Jewish world until her husband gives her a get. Until then, she is an agunah , a "chained" woman. If she falls in love and decides to remarry without the get , she would be considered an adulteress, and her children from that union would be shunned. On that August day a couple of years ago, he explained to the woman and her brother how he would persuade her husband to give her a get.
He mentioned a team of "tough guys" who could torture her husband with electric cattle prods, handcuffs and karate and suffocate him using plastic bags.
A few weeks later, on September 25, the brother spoke to Epstein by phone to finalize the details. They discussed a warehouse the rabbi had in mind for the kidnapping, as well as how he planned to lure the husband there. When the brother asked if it was necessary for his sister's husband to enter the warehouse, Epstein said it might not be: "They don't need him for long, believe me. They'll have him in the van, hooded, and [the get ] will happen. Around 8 p. Some of them put on ski masks, Halloween masks and bandannas and entered the building while others patrolled outside with flashlights.
Once the kidnapping team got inside, they reviewed their plan—how they would tie up the husband, take his phone and keep him away from the windows while they did whatever else they planned to do. They had a thorough plan that left out one important contingency: Their clients for the evening's kidnapping were undercover FBI agents. When law enforcement officers rushed into the warehouse and arrested Epstein's snatch team, they found, according to the indictment , surgical blades, plastic bags, a screwdriver, a rope and ceremonial items used in recording gets.
Epstein, however, was nowhere in sight. As he'd explained in an earlier meeting with the agunah 's brother, which was secretly taped, he would be out in public, firming up his alibi in case the police got involved. Epstein, 69, along with Martin Wolmark, an Orthodox rabbi who heads a yeshiva in Monsey, New York; rabbis Jay Goldstein and Binyamin Stimler of Brooklyn; and David Epstein, have been charged in New Jersey federal court with conspiracy to commit kidnapping and related charges.
Earlier this year, Wolmark pleaded guilty of conspiring to commit extortion. Six co-conspirators, including two of Goldstein's sons, have already pleaded guilty. In addition to that FBI sting, the indictment drew on a kidnapping in November , when a victim was lured from Brooklyn to Lakewood, tied up in a van, assaulted and shocked with a stun gun until he agreed to give his wife a get.
A second kidnapping allegedly took place on October 17, , when David Epstein and accomplices tied up a victim and beat him into giving the get. On August 22, , David Epstein and others allegedly barged into a man's home and assaulted him and his roommate, punching them in the face, handcuffing and blindfolding them, and binding their legs.
Epstein's alleged kidnapping service is neither a crazy aberration nor a hot new trend in Brooklyn's Orthodox neighborhoods. Beat-downs and kidnappings are a long-whispered-about last resort for agunot who face years chained to men who won't let them go. Controlled by husbands who manipulate their position, wield emotional and legal power, and leverage their marriages for their own gain, these women are a gruesome example of domestic abuse.
Who, then, are the real villains in this story? Epstein and his so-called "kidnap team" or the vengeful husbands who were allegedly taken and beaten up for refusing to give their wives gets?
Divorce is rarely a simple matter for any couple, but in the Orthodox Jewish community, it can be a ruthless and often brutal process, especially for women. When a beth din summons a husband to participate in the get process, he can respond in three ways: agree to give the get ; go to court, provide his reasons for refusing and wait for the rabbis' decision; or ignore the request.
When the latter happens, the beth din issues a contempt order, called a seruv , stating that the husband is not complying with Jewish law and instructing his community to shun him in hopes that the social and religious cold shoulder will convince him to change his mind.
Men refuse to give gets for all sorts of reasons: money, child custody, leverage in their divorce proceedings and plain old spite. There are no hard statistics on how long the average woman remains shackled, but leaders in the Orthodox community estimate anywhere from one to five years, though some divorces drag on for decades. A recent study by the Mellman Group offered more concrete insights: Between and , there were cases of agunot across North America.
One-third of those cases occurred in the final year of the study, and half took between one and five years to resolve.
Thirty-five percent of the organizations polled were unable to estimate how long a resolution would take. Centuries ago, Jewish communities were close-knit enclaves with a centralized rabbinic authority. It was harder then for Jews to assimilate into society, so it was easier for the community to police itself.
If a husband ignored the rabbis' advice and refused to give his wife a get , he'd be shunned and there wasn't anywhere for him to go.
Today's agunah problem is another beast entirely. Rabbinic literature describes how to handle get refusal, but these treatments are limited to archaic situations, like a husband lost at sea or missing in action at war, not cases where he withholds a get to control divorce proceedings.
In Israel, men who refuse to give their wives gets can lose their driving privileges or get thrown in jail. In the U. Groups like the Organization for the Resolution of Agunot ORA organize public shamings and rally support on behalf of agunot.
Their tactics include staging protests in front of a husband's home and office, urging his community and synagogue to keep him out, raising awareness in the media and applying financial and legal pressure. Friedman has allegedly refused to give his wife a get for nearly 18 years. You can leave now! Eighteen years, Yechiel. It's ludicrous! You're a rasha [a wicked person]!
The ORA condemns all acts of violence, and while there are circumstances in which Jewish law allows for the use of force, says Weissmann, "in a civil society where the rule of law prevails, the use of force is not an option. As Beverly Siegel, the filmmaker behind the documentary Women Unchained , puts it, "Here's a woman's life hanging in the balance.
American law can't help you. Jewish law has reached the limits of what it can do for you. What are you going to do? The ultra-Orthodox community is struggling to navigate today's rapidly changing world. In New York City last year, at least four baby boys developed herpes—and many are pointing to the ultra-Orthodox ritual of metzitzah b'peh , in which a rabbi sucks blood from an infant's circumcised penis, as the cause.
Last year, a group of ultra-Orthodox men delayed an El Al flight from New York to Israel when they refused to take their assigned seats.
The reason? They cannot sit next to women. Last January, the ultra-Orthodox Israeli newspaper HaMevaser erased Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Germany, from a photo of world leaders marching against terrorism in Paris. Both decisions were made due to modesty rules within the Orthodox tradition. And in , a viral video surfaced featuring young, fresh-faced Orthodox men admitting how scared they once were at the prospect of marrying older women.
Whether it's dealing with a "kosher smartphone" and the controversial new Shabbos App , or taking over New York's Citi Field to protest the dangers of the Internet, or addressing today's agunot crisis, there's one daunting fact for the Orthodox community: Jewish law cannot be altered.
We just want to figure out a way to stop people from abusing the rules. A man who refuses to give a get is a bad guy! Laws don't stop people from being bad people. Last year, a rabbinical court in Israel granted a special kind of get to a year-old woman whose husband had been in a coma for seven years. The get zikui , as it's called, involves a religious court acting on behalf of the husband to give his wife a get.
But the approach, which originated in prewar Europe, is rare today. A more modern solution to the agunot crisis is the halachic prenuptial agreement. The prenup, which is enforceable in the U. According to a survey by the Rabbinical Council of America, which represents mainstream Modern Orthodox rabbis in the U. The prenup does have limitations, "especially for people for whom money is no object," says Rabba Sara Hurwitz, dean of Yeshivat Maharat in Riverdale, New York, the first yeshiva to ordain women as Orthodox clergy.
Those outside Orthodox Judaism often wonder why agunot don't simply leave their community and move on. She has her civil divorce! Get refusal is a form of domestic abuse. The trial against Epstein, David Epstein, Goldstein and Stimler has made headlines as much for the salacious details as for the largely unfamiliar Orthodox traditions at the center of the case.
Epstein and his alleged co-conspirators have been referred to as "the Orthodox hit squad," and their actions have been likened to "a scene out of The Sopranos. At one point, he said someone stuffed dirty socks into his mouth. In the background, Teitelbaum could hear men beating up his roommate, Usher Chaimowitz, and demanding that he give his wife a get.
Teitelbaum said his beatings lasted two hours. In his opening statement, Epstein's attorney, Robert Stahl, described his client as a "champion of women's rights. The government likes to paint this as it's something about money. It's not. It's about the woman and letting her move on in life, getting divorced," Stahl said. Aidan O'Connor, who represents Goldstein, says the case has been "overcharged. Federal assault charges vary by the degree of the assault and can run from one to five years, up to 20 years or life in prison.
O'Connor explains that the type of assault alleged in this case would likely carry a year maximum prison sentence. The Epstein trial has illuminated a damning problem: What does the future look like for agunot bound by their God and his laws to men they want to divorce? How can we better protect women trapped in marital limbo? I'm very sympathetic to a desperate woman who's trying to get herself freed.
It doesn't excuse acting illegally but—" he trails off.
Data Protection Choices
Few events in life are as destabilizing, disappointing, painful, or sad as divorce. When a couple marries, neither expects the marriage to end in divorce. Not every marriage can survive the stresses and strains of day-to-day life. Usually, when couples separate even on a trial basis , the split is the first step on the path to divorce. If you do not know whether divorce is in your future, it may be wise to defer separating until you have explored every opportunity for reconciliation.
The document has no bearing or effect on any aspect of the civil settlement and makes no reference to responsibility or fault. Although a civil divorce is certainly necessary to end the civil marriage, according to Jewish law Halacha , a Jewish marriage is not dissolved until a Jewish bill of divorce get is exchanged between husband and wife. Most American rabbis, and the Israeli rabbinate, do not recognize a civil divorce as sufficient and will therefore not officiate at a wedding in which either party has been divorced without a get. Whose responsibility is it?
In Orthodox Jewish Divorce, Men Hold All the Cards
And even with the increased flexibility, there remain several hundred Hasidic and modern Orthodox women every year who become agunot, Hebrew for chained — as in a woman chained to her husband and stuck in a marriage from which he cannot or will not release her. A lawyer and scholar, she is also a co-founder of the Boston Agunah Taskforce. Agunah is the singular of agunot. The Taskforce is devoted to research, education and advocacy for fairness in the Jewish divorce process. They participate in a Jewish marriage ceremony, which includes signing a ketubah, or marriage contract. In Conservative and Orthodox Judaism, a religious marriage can only be dissolved through proceedings before a rabbinical court. That power is reserved for the husband. The movement recognizes the primacy of civil divorce laws. If the government grants you a divorce, then you're automatically considered divorced under Jewish law, too. The rules governing divorce are also different in Israel see below , so a get can be important if you later marry an Israeli or move there.
Can A Woman Initiate Jewish Divorce Proceedings?
Jewish leaders are concerned that messages about the risks of Covid, and the need to isolate and keep social distance, are not reaching pockets of the ultra-Orthodox community who rarely engage with the media and have limited access to the internet. But in Stamford Hill, an area of north-east London with a large Haredi , or ultra-Orthodox, population, some synagogues are still open. Schools and places of religious education should shut, the guidance said. Almost all synagogues have been closed for more than a week, with many livestreaming services and celebrations.
Judaism recognized the concept of "no-fault" divorce thousands of years ago. Judaism has always accepted divorce as a fact of life, albeit an unfortunate one. Judaism generally maintains that it is better for a couple to divorce than to remain together in a state of constant bitterness and strife. Under Jewish law , a man can divorce a woman for any reason or no reason.
When Jews Divorce: Frequently Asked Questions
The Jewish view on marriage, historically, provided Biblically mandated  rights to the wife which were accepted by the husband. A marriage was ended either because of a divorce document given by the man to his wife, or by the death of either party. Certain details, primarily as protections for the wife, were added in Talmudic times.
The requirements for a get include that the document be presented by a husband to his wife. The essential part of the get is a very short declaration: "You are hereby permitted to all men". The effect of the get is to free the woman from the marriage, and consequently she is free to marry another and that the laws of adultery no longer apply. The get also returns to the wife the legal rights that a husband held in regard to her. The word get may have its origins in the Sumerian word for document, GID. It appears to have passed from Sumerian into Akkadian as gittu, and from there into Mishnaic Hebrew.
Can a woman refuse to give her husband a Jewish religious divorce? It just happened in Australia.
It was August 14, , and he was sitting in his home in Lakewood, New Jersey, with a young Orthodox Jewish woman and her brother. She had sought out Epstein because she desperately wanted to divorce her husband, who was refusing to give her a get , the document that formally dissolves a marriage under Jewish law. In Orthodox Judaism, only husbands can give gets , and while most do, those who refuse wield enormous power over their wives. Even with a civil divorce decree in hand, a woman is not divorced in the Orthodox Jewish world until her husband gives her a get. Until then, she is an agunah , a "chained" woman. If she falls in love and decides to remarry without the get , she would be considered an adulteress, and her children from that union would be shunned. On that August day a couple of years ago, he explained to the woman and her brother how he would persuade her husband to give her a get.
In Judaism, marriage between living spouses is terminated through a special divorce ceremony , whereby the husband gives his wife a document of divorce known as a get in the presence of witnesses. Written by a scribe , the get is prepared and given under the careful guidance of a beit din Jewish ecclesiastical court. When a man takes a wife and is intimate with her, and it happens that she does not find favor in his eyes because he discovers in her an unseemly matter, and he writes for her a document of severance, gives it into her hand, and sends her away from his house.
Он оглядел пустой зал. Ни души. Продала кольцо и улетела. Он увидел уборщика и подошел к .
Даже за широким кольцом терминалов она почувствовала резкий запах одеколона и поморщилась. - Замечательный одеколон, Грег.
Вылил целую бутылку.
Ты не сделаешь ничего подобного! - оборвал его Стратмор.
- Коммандер Стратмор отправил кого-то в Испанию с заданием найти ключ. - И что? - воскликнул Джабба. - Человек Стратмора его нашел. Сьюзан, больше не в силах сдержать слезы, разрыдалась. - Да, - еле слышно сказала .
За полтора метра до стеклянной двери Сьюзан отпрянула в сторону и зажмурилась. Раздался страшный треск, и стеклянная панель обдала ее дождем осколков. Звуки шифровалки впервые за всю историю этого здания ворвались в помещение Третьего узла. Сьюзан открыла. Сквозь отверстие в двери она увидела стол.
Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Но Стратмор смотрел на молодого сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности. Коммандер спускался по лестнице, ни на мгновение не сводя с него глаз.