How much glutamine does a woman need
Whey protein is widely extolled as a rich source of the amino acids needed to pack on muscle. Gym rats are drawn to creatine like paparazzi to a Sunset Strip nightclub for its tendency to boost strength. Even something as seemingly nonsplashy as fish oil has been hailed as a super-supplement of late because of its rich array of health-boosting properties. Under couch-potato conditions, the body produces all the glutamine it needs. Talbott, Ph.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: L-Glutamine : Pharmacist's Review
Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.
Author disclosures: M. Some athletes can have high intakes of L-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. Prolonged exercise and periods of heavy training are associated with a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration and this has been suggested to be a potential cause of the exercise-induced immune impairment and increased susceptibility to infection in athletes.
However, several recent glutamine feeding intervention studies indicate that although the plasma glutamine concentration can be kept constant during and after prolonged strenuous exercise, the glutamine supplementation does not prevent the postexercise changes in several aspects of immune function. Although glutamine is essential for lymphocyte proliferation, the plasma glutamine concentration does not fall sufficiently low after exercise to compromise the rate of proliferation.
Doses of up to 0. However, the suggested reasons for taking glutamine supplements support for immune system, increased glycogen synthesis, anticatabolic effect have received little support from well-controlled scientific studies in healthy, well-nourished humans.
It is important as a constituent of proteins and as a means of nitrogen transport between tissues 1. It is also important in acid-base regulation, gluconeogenesis, and as a precursor of nucleotide bases and the antioxidant glutathione. Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma.
Its alleged effects can be classified as anabolic and immunostimulatory. Glutamine is utilized at high rates by leukocytes particularly lymphocytes to provide energy and optimal conditions for nucleotide biosynthesis and hence, cell proliferation 3.
Indeed, glutamine is considered important, if not essential, to lymphocytes and other rapidly dividing cells, including the gut mucosa and bone marrow stem cells. Unlike skeletal muscle, leukocytes do not possess the enzyme glutamine synthetase, which catalyses the synthesis of glutamine from ammonia NH 3 and glutamate, and therefore leukocytes are unable to synthesize glutamine 3.
Consequently, leukocytes are largely dependent on skeletal muscle glutamine synthesis and release into the blood to satisfy their metabolic requirements.
Prolonged exercise is associated with a decrease in the intramuscular and plasma concentrations of glutamine and it has been hypothesized that this decrease in glutamine availability could impair immune function 4. Periods of very heavy training are associated with a chronic reduction in plasma concentrations of glutamine and it has been suggested that this may be partly responsible for the immunodepression apparent in many endurance athletes 4.
The intramuscular concentration of glutamine is known to be related to the rate of net protein synthesis 5 and there is also some evidence for a role for glutamine in promoting glycogen synthesis 6. However, the mechanisms underlying these alleged anabolic effects of glutamine remain to be elucidated.
Based on an uncritical evaluation of the scientific literature, various manufacturers and suppliers of glutamine supplements claimed that they have the following effects that may benefit athletes: nutritional support for the immune system and prevention of infection; improved gut barrier function and reduced risk of endotoxemia; improved intracellular fluid retention i.
The evidence for these effects is reviewed below. It has been speculated that failure of the muscle to provide sufficient glutamine could result in a depressed rate of lymphocyte proliferation in response to antigens and so might impair immune defense to viral infection 8.
The effects of acute exercise on plasma glutamine concentration appear to be largely dependent on the duration and intensity of exercise 9. For example, Babij et al. It has been speculated 11 that the increase in plasma glutamine levels during short-term high intensity exercise may be due to glutamate acting as a sink for NH 3 in the formation of glutamine from glutamate during enhanced intramuscular NH 3 production in high intensity exercise the NH 3 is predominantly derived from the deamination of adenosine monophosphate.
In contrast to the data for high intensity exercise, there is a consistent body of evidence showing that the plasma glutamine levels fall substantially after very prolonged exercise. Increased glutamine uptake by activated leukocytes may also contribute to the fall in plasma glutamine levels after prolonged exercise, although limited evidence is available to support this suggestion Prolonged exercise is known to cause an elevation in plasma cortisol concentration, which stimulates not only protein catabolism and glutamine release but also increases gluconeogenesis in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys Increased hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal uptake of glutamine could place a significant drain on plasma glutamine availability after prolonged exercise.
Similar changes in plasma stress hormones occur after starvation, surgical trauma, sepsis, burns, and prolonged exercise, and all of these states of catabolic stress are characterized by lowered plasma glutamine concentrations, depressed cellular immunity, and increased gluconeogenesis 8. In conditions of metabolic acidosis, the renal uptake of glutamine increases to provide for ammoniagenesis. In this situation, it seems likely that release of glutamine from muscle may have increased, along with renal uptake, in an attempt to maintain acid-base balance.
Walsh et al. The resting plasma concentrations of glutamine have been reported to be lower in over-trained chronically fatigued athletes compared with healthy well-trained athletes and sedentary individuals 4 , According to the glutamine hypothesis, over-trained athletes with decreased plasma glutamine concentration would be predicted to exhibit impaired immune function and suffer a greater number and severity of upper respiratory tract infections URTI.
However, to date, there has been no direct evidence to our knowledge supporting a causal link between low plasma glutamine, impaired immune function, and increased susceptibility to infection in athletes. Although lower plasma glutamine levels in athletes reporting URTI symptoms have been reported 17 , others have found no relationship between low plasma glutamine concentration and the occurrence of URTI in track and field athletes 16 or trained swimmers If a decrease in plasma glutamine concentration were a causal factor in the transient postexercise depression of immune function, then preventing the fall in plasma glutamine by supplementing glutamine orally should prevent the associated immune impairment.
However, several glutamine feeding intervention studies in humans suggest that glutamine supplementation before and after exercise has no detectable effect on exercise-induced changes in immune cell functions. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study, Rohde et al. Subjects were fed glutamine 0. Although glutamine feeding prevented the fall in the plasma glutamine concentration, it did not prevent the fall in lymphocyte proliferation 2 h after each bout or the fall in activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells at 2 h after the final bout of exercise.
Using similar glutamine treatments, other recent studies have also shown that glutamine supplementation sufficient to prevent any fall in the plasma glutamine concentration during and after 2 h of cycling did not prevent the decrease in the activity of natural killer cells 20 or in the concentration of immunoglobulin-A in saliva In another study, subjects ingested 3 g of glutamine every 15 min during the final 30 min of a 2-h exercise bout and every 15 min during a subsequent 2-h recovery period total intake of 30 g with no effect on the exercise-induced transient decrease in bacteria-stimulated neutrophil degranulation Castell et al.
In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, ultra-marathon and marathon runners participating in races were given either a placebo or a glutamine beverage 5 g glutamine in mL water , which was ingested immediately after and 2 h after the race. The runners were given questionnaires to self-report the occurrence of symptoms of URTI for 7 d after the race. Although the reporting of URTI symptoms increased following the race in both groups, it was concluded that the provision of the glutamine supplement in the 2 h following the race decreased the incidence of infection in the week after the event.
However, it is unlikely that the glutamine dose given was actually sufficient to prevent the postexercise decline in the plasma glutamine concentrations. Indeed, in another study by the same group, plasma glutamine concentration decreased similarly in placebo and glutamine-supplemented groups when glutamine was supplemented 5 g glutamine in mL water immediately after and 2 h after a marathon Another glutamine feeding study showed that an oral dose of 0.
Thus, doses in excess of 5 g need to be ingested at frequent intervals e. The glutamine hypothesis is that a decrease in plasma glutamine concentrations, brought about by heavy exercise and training, limits the availability of glutamine for cells of the immune system that require glutamine for energy and nucleotide biosynthesis.
Thus, the glutamine hypothesis provides a mechanism to explain exercise-induced immune impairment and increased susceptibility to infection in endurance athletes. The time course of the decrease in plasma glutamine concentrations after prolonged strenuous exercise coincides with the decreases in many immune parameters 25 , 26 ; in addition, it is prolonged moderate-high intensity exercise that most often results in the greatest immune impairment and this type of exercise also results in the greatest reduction in plasma glutamine concentration.
The glutamine hypothesis is based predominantly on in vitro work by Parry-Billings et al. Finally, as described above, the majority of studies have found no beneficial effects of maintaining plasma glutamine concentration, with glutamine supplements during exercise and recovery, on various immune responses after exercise. Collectively, the evidence does not support a role for decreased plasma glutamine concentrations in the etiology of exercise-induced immune depression.
More research is required to elucidate the mechanism s by which oral glutamine supplements may have prophylactic effects in long-distance runners Although a direct effect of decreased glutamine availability for immune cells is unlikely, glutamine may have an indirect effect on immune function and infection incidence through preservation of the antioxidant glutathione or maintenance of gut barrier function Glutamine is not included in commercial sports drinks mainly because of its relative instability in solution.
Water transport from the gut into the circulation is known to be promoted by the presence in drinks of glucose and sodium This is because water movement is determined by osmotic gradients and the cotransport of sodium and glucose into the gut epithelial cells is accompanied by the osmotic movement of water molecules in the same direction.
Glutamine is transported into gut epithelial cells by both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent mechanisms and the addition of glutamine to oral rehydration solutions has been shown to increase the rate of fluid absorption above that of ingested water alone However, the potential benefits of adding glutamine to commercially available sports drinks have not be adequately tested and any additional benefit in terms of increased rate of fluid absorption and retention is likely to be very small indeed.
One study 33 has reported that the plasma bicarbonate concentration was increased by 2. Muscle protein breakdown occurs in the fasted state. Recent research indicates that resistance-exercise reduces the extent of this protein catabolism, but an anabolic muscle growth response requires an intake of essential amino acids dietary protein in the recovery period after exercise This promotes amino acid uptake into muscle and increases the rate of synthesis of tissue protein without affecting the rate of protein breakdown.
Provided that the ingested protein contains the 8 essential amino acids, taking supplements of individual nonessential amino acids at this time is unlikely to provide any additional benefit However, further research using optimal carbohydrate feeding after exercise needs to be undertaken to substantiate this finding and to give it practical relevance. The ingestion of 61 g of carbohydrate is a suboptimal amount; amounts in excess of g are needed to achieve the maximum rate of muscle glycogen synthesis over a 2-h postexercise period One study 33 has reported that the plasma concentration of growth hormone was increased 4-fold 90 min following oral ingestion of 2 g glutamine.
However, 1 h of moderate to high intensity exercise can result in a fold increase in plasma growth hormone concentration, so this is not a reason for athletes engaged in exercise training to take glutamine supplements. Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect plasma glutamine concentrations There is no scientific evidence for a beneficial effect of oral glutamine supplementation on muscle repair after exercise-induced damage and no evidence of reduced muscle soreness when consuming glutamine compared with placebo Supplements currently available are in the form of l-glutamine tablets or capsules , , and mg or as a powder.
Other dietary sources of glutamine for athletes may include protein supplements such as whey protein and protein hydrolysates Glutamine is thought to be relatively safe and well tolerated by most people, although administration of glutamine to people with kidney disorders is not recommended. No adverse reactions to short-term glutamine supplementation in amounts of 20—30 g within a few hours 22 have been reported in healthy athletes.
In the only relatively long-term, repeated high-dose glutamine supplementation study in athletes 41 , 4 women and 9 men of high fitness consumed 0. No ill effects were reported, but even this high glutamine intake did not prevent a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration over 9 d of intensive training blood samples were taken 8 h after the last glutamine dose. An inadequate dietary intake of protein impairs host immunity with particularly detrimental effects on the T-cell system, resulting in increased incidence of opportunistic infections Although it is unlikely that athletes would ever reach a state of such extreme malnutrition, the impairment of host defense mechanisms is observed even in moderate protein deficiency.
Dietary protein is also required to promote muscle protein synthesis after exercise. Hence, ensuring an adequate intake of protein is important for athletes but consuming glutamine supplements is not.
Consuming glutamine supplements is unlikely to be of substantial benefit in terms of fluid balance restoration or preventing immunodepression after exercise, although there are some suggestions of a possible role for glutamine in stimulating anabolic processes, including muscle glycogen and protein synthesis.
The available evidence at present is not strong enough to warrant a recommendation for an athlete to use a glutamine supplement. Other articles in this supplement include references 43 — Watford M.
Glutamine metabolism and function in relation to proline synthesis and the safety of glutamine and proline supplementation. J Nutr. Google Scholar. Jonnalagadda SS. In: Driskell JA , editor. Sports nutrition: fats and proteins. Google Preview.
Glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes of the rat. Biochem J.
This Amino Acid Supplement Supports Gut Health and Weight Loss
Earn Best Points, redeem when making purchases and shop for even less. Become a member and gain valulable benefits. Many manufactures use poor quality L-glutamine from duck feathers.
L-glutamine is one of two forms of the amino acid glutamine. Produced mainly in the muscles, L-glutamine plays a key role in many biological processes, including the synthesis of protein , the regulation of kidney and immune function, and the maintenance and repair of intestinal tissues. Its counterpart, D-glutamine, appear to be of lesser consequence to human function. L-glutamine also serves as a secondary fuel source for cellular energy and helps create other important compounds, including glucose and purines the building blocks of DNA.
Glutamine: Your Post-Sweat Supplement?
Shipping Update. Shop now, pay later with Afterpay. Forget about those fad diets, throw out the ridiculous diet pills filled with a slew of ingredients, and instead focus on following an anti-inflammatory diet supplemented with nutrients that are known to enhance the appearance of both body and skin. By now, you probably know all the ins and outs of following an anti-inflammatory diet. But just to refresh your memory, it should consist of eating:. Of course, targeted nutritional supplements formulated to aid in weight loss can help you drop those few extra pounds and keep your weight in check. Nutrients ranging from glutamine to alpha lipoic acid ALA to chromium can help enhance the loss of body fat, regulate your blood sugar and insulin levels, and promote healthy, youthful-looking skin.
The benefits of l-glutamine
Glutamine is an essential amino acid — one of the building blocks of protein. It plays various roles in the body including regulating immune function, brain function and digestion. In most instances, you would not require supplementation to meet your body's need for this nutrient but certain conditions like illness, stress, intense exercise and infections can lower glutamine levels. Supplementation might also offer therapeutic benefit for various conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Some dosage recommendations exist for glutamine supplementation and primarily hinge on the condition being treated rather than other factors, like gender.
Considering many women use glutamine for weight loss, you may be wondering if this dietary addition is right for you. Glutamine is one of many amino acids — the building blocks of protein — that your body uses for nearly every single process that keeps you moving each day. Some of these processes can affect your waist size , like protein synthesis — the key to building lean, calorie-torching muscle — and metabolic regulation.
Your Complete Guide to L-Glutamine
Today we have decided to spotlight an amazing little amino acid that actually serves a few important purposes! Say hello to L-Glutamine! But what is glutamine? What does glutamine do? What foods are good sources of glutamine?
Health Benefits of L-Glutamine
Studies have shown that L-Glutamine supplementation can minimize breakdown of muscle and improve protein metabolism. Find out everything you need to know about glutamine and how it can help you! During intense training, Glutamine levels are greatly depleted in your body, which decreases strength, stamina and recovery. It could take up to 6 days for Glutamine levels to return to normal—and Glutamine plays a key role in protein synthesis. Glutamine plays key roles in protein metabolism , cell volumizing, and anti-catabolism. Glutamine's anti-catabolism ability prevents the breakdown of your muscles.
Here, we'll clear out the hype by explaining what it is, breaking down the unique way it works to potentially optimize muscle recovery and then delve into the latest science and get to the heart of the matter: Should you supplement your training diet with glutamine? Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in your body. It's a part of the non-essential group of about 20 amino acids that are found naturally throughout your body.
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